What are Microorganisms? Types of Microorganisms | Overview

Microorganisms

Microorganisms are very small in size, these organisms can be seen only in microscope. The science that deals with the study of microorganisms is known as microbiology. Microorganisms are found in everywhere for examples: air, water, ponds & lakes, rivers & oceans, soil, even inside our bodies 

WHAT ARE FIVE TYPES OF MICROORGANISMS?

  • Virus  
  • Bacteria  
  • Fungi 
  • Algae  
  • Protozoa  

USES OF MICROORGANISMS: 

Microorganisms are useful to us in many ways. Its helps in the production of various food product. Also, useful in different fields such as making medicine, keeping the environmental cleaning in manufacturing and in research, agriculture and industry. 

PRODUCTION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS: 

Bacteria (streptococcus) helps in fermentation, which also helps in making some dairy products like curd, butter milk, butter, cheese.  Bacteria (lactobacillus) helps in the transformation of milk into curd.  

                             

HUMAN INTESTINE: 

In that bacterium (lactobacillus acidophilus) lives in the human intestine and helps in the digestion of food. E. coli bacteria its help in synthesizing vitamin K and vitamin B complex. 

PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL: 

Fungus and like yeast used in the alcoholic drinks like wine, rum, vodka, etc. It’s prepared by fermentation process using yeast. Beer is produced by the fermentation of sugars in rice and barley. 

FOOD PRESERVATION 

Is the process to handle the food to stop or slow down food spoilage, loss of quality, edibility, Nutritional value allow for longer food storage. Preservation is helpful in preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi (such as yeast), and another microorganism. For examples: in chemical pickling using the edible liquid that kills bacteria and other microorganisms, (Ex: vinegar, alcohol, vegetable oil (pickling agent). 

Milk is preserved by pasteurization method. It is heated up to 70-degree Celsius to kill the bacteria and it’s cooled to 10-degree Celsius to prevent the growth of remaining bacteria. 

DISEASE CAUSED BY MICROORGANISMS IN HUMANS  

Human diseases Microorganisms  Transmission  Symptoms  Treatment 
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis      (bacteria)  Air and sputum of infected person Mucus, loss of weight, breathlessness BCG vaccine
Cholera Vibrio cholera   (bacteria)  Contaminated food and water Watery diarrhea, vomiting, rapid dehydration Anticholera vaccine
Common cold Influenza (virus)  Air Running nose, sneezing Isolation of patient
Rabies Rhabdo viridae (virus)  Animal bite Fever, Hallucination, Paralysis, Inability to Swallow Anti-Rabies vaccine
Amoebic dysentery Entamoeba histolytica (Protozoa) Food water and flies Severe diarrhea and blood in stool Proper sanitation
Malaria Plasmodium (Protozoa)  Female anopheles’ mosquito Nausea, vomiting, high fever Antimalarial drugs like quinine and chloroquine

 MEDICINE 

Acetobacter, Rhizopus, penicillium are a few fungi that are used to ferment substrates such as fruits and sugar containing syrups. Some bacterial and fungal species are used in the preparation of steroid. 

ANTIBIOTICS 

Antibiotic is a substance produced by living organisms which is toxic for other organisms. penicillium(antibiotic) was obtained from the fungi penicillium chrysogenum. It is used to treat diseases such as tetanus and diphtheria. 

  • Tetanus: is a fatal bacterial that effects the nerves. Its causes painful muscle contractions, particularly in the jaw and neck.
  • Diphtheria: a serious infection of the nose and throat making breathing hard.
  • The antibiotic, streptomycin is obtained from Streptomyces bacteria to cure various bacterial infections. E.g., Plague.
  • Plague: disease that affects humans, it is caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. 

VACCINES 

Vaccines are prepared from dead or weakened microbes. When the vaccine is the injected to the body of the patient the body produces antibodies to fight against the germs. Vaccines provide the immunity against several diseases. 

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