Hormones in Human Body | Functions of Various Hormones

HORMONES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS 

Our body is depending on the hormones and their functions, it is a chemical messenger. Hormones are produced by various glands in your endocrine systems. Its helps to regulate the processes like body’s growth and develop, metabolisms and fertility. There are very small amount produce in our body. 

GLANDS IN OUR BODY 

There are five types of glands

THYROID GLAND  

Thyroid gland is a small gland, it located in the front of the neck and butterfly-shaped gland. Its helps to regulate many bodies functions. Thyroid gland produces three hormones, such as thyroxines (T4), triiodothyronine (T3). 

THYROXINES (T4):  

  • Thyroxine increased intestinal glucose absorption. 
  • Also increase the glycogenolysis in liver and muscle. 
  • It promotes neoglucogenesis. 
  • Increase RNA, amino acid transport and protein synthesis. 
  • Thyroxine is essential for the conversion of beta-carotene to    vitamin A. 

TRIIODOTHYRONINE (T3): 

  • That plays main role in body’s metabolic rate, heart and digestive function, bone health. 
  •  T3 is a most powerful hormone, specifically supports brain functions. 

CALCITONIN: 

  • It is calcium lowering hormone originated from the C cells of the thyroid gland.  
  • Calcitonin inhibits bone resorption and mobilization of calcium and phosphorus from bone. 
  • That defectively effective on bone. 

PARATHYROID GLAND  

  • Parathyroid gland is a small pea sized and oval shaped gland, it’s just behind the thyroid glands in the neck.
  • Thyroid gland produces a hormone called as parathormone (parathyroid hormone). 

PARATHYROID HORMONE: 

  • It mobilizes calcium and phosphorus from bones.
  • Increases the serum calcium and serum alkaline activity. 
  • It increases urinary excretion of phosphate but decreases excretion of calcium. 

PANCREATIC GLAND  

Pancreatic gland located in the abdomen back to the neck, pancreas is an organ. It has both endocrine and exocrine functions, so that is called as mixed gland. The endocrine function is secretion of the hormones like insulin and glucagon. 

INSULIN: 

  • Action on cell membrane permeability. 
  • Action on metabolism: CHO (carbohydrates), protein, fat, nucleic acid, and minerals. 
  • Insulin also promotes the entry of amino acids with in the cells. 

GLUCAGON: 

  • It inhibits glucose oxidation by inhibiting pyruvate and pyruvate dehydrogenase. 
  • Elevated glucagon concentration and also increases ketogenesis. 
  • It increases potassium release from the liver. 
  • In adipose tissue as well as in liver, it increases the breakdown of lipids to fatty acids and glycerol. 

ADRENAL GLAND  

  • Adrenal gland is endocrine gland, it’s very small and triangular shaped glands. That located in the top of the both kidneys.
  • There are two parts of adrenal gland such as, adrenal cortex, and adrenal medulla. Its responsible for producing different hormones.  

ADRENAL CORTEX: 

  • Sex hormones (male and female) (DHEA- dehydroepiandrosterone), testosterone. 
  • Steroid hormone 
  • Glucocorticoids (cortisol) 
  • Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) 

ADRENAL MEDULLA: 

  • Epinephrine  
  • Norepinephrine 

GLUCOCORTICOIDS (CORTISOL): 

  • These hormones increases glucose, fatty acids and amino acids in the  blood. 
  • They are inactive on heart, brain, and red blood cells. 
  • They have anti-inflammatory effects and also immunosuppressive effects. 
  • Effects on bone, exocrine secretion, cyclic AMP and stress. 

MINERALOCORTICOIDS (ALDOSTERONE): 

  • They increase the absorption of sodium and chloride by the renal tubules and decrease they’re by the sweat gland and salivary gland. 
  • Aldosterone also increases the renal clearance of magnesium. 

TESTOSTERONE (MALE SEX HORMONE): 

  • It is largely responsible for the emotional make-up of the male. 
  • It promotes protein synthesis in the body. 
  • Increases the fatty acid synthesis. 

ESTROGENS (E2) (FEMALE SEX HORMONE): 

  • Estrogens are responsible for the growth of the uterus, vagina, pelvis, breast, pubic and axillary hair. 
  • They influence the menstrual cycle and are essential for breast development. 

PROGESTERONE (FEMALE SEX HORMONE): 

  • It causes the development of the endometrium preparing, it for the implantation of fertilized ovum for conception. 
  • It stimulates the mammary glands. 
  • These increases BMR during luteal phase of normal menstrual cycle. 

PITUITARY GLAND  

  • Pituitary gland also known as hypophysis, it located in the near the brain and controls such important endocrine glands as adrenals, thyroid, gonads. It sits in an indent in the sphenoid bone called the Sella turcica.
  • The pituitary gland is one of the eight interrelated major endocrine glands: pineal gland, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreases, ovary, testis. 

ANTERIOR PITUITARY: 

  • TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) 
  • ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) 
  • LH (luteinizing hormone) 
  • GH (growth hormone) 
  • PRL (prolactin) 
  • FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) 

POSTERIOR PITUITARY: 

  • Oxytocin 
  • Vasopressin 

TSH (THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE) 

  • It is a glycoprotein of molecular weight about 30000 
  • It increases the release of thyroxine to blood circulation 

 ACTH (ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE) 

  • It increases the total protein synthesis 
  • It causes the synthesis of steroid hormone from cholesterol 
  • It has mild stimulating effect in dispersing melanin granules on the skin.
  • Helps to stimulates the production of cortisol, that maintains blood pressure and blood sugar levels. 

LH (LUTENIZING HORMONE) 

  • It increases cAMP 
  • LH stimulates the ovulation in women, and testosterone production in men. 

FSH (FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE) 

  • It stimulates the ovaries to produce egg, and helps to control menstrual cycle. 
  • In male, it stimulates seminal tubule and testicular growth and also early stages of spermatogenesis. 

GH (GROWTH HORMONE) 

  • It increases total growth and causes gigantism in children. 
  • Its deficiency in children causes dwarfism. 
  • Helps to maintain healthy muscles and bones and manage fat distribution. 

PROLACTIN 

  • It activates the corpus luteum and stimulates progesterone production by the developed corpus luteum. 
  • Increase secretion can also cause menstrual problems and infertility. 
  • Decrease secretion can lead to insufficient milk being produced after giving birth. 

OXYTOCIN  

  • It causes contraction of smooth muscles in the mammary gland resulting in milk excretion. 
  • It stimulates the contraction of gall bladder, intestine and urinary bladder. 

VASOPRESSIN 

  • It is an effective inhibitor of the gonadotrophin, and particularly in LH. 
  • Helps to decreases water excretion by the kidney. 

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