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Hormones Abnormalities and Disorders | Study of Hormones

Hormonal Disorders from Different Glands

When the too much or too little hormone secreted in your endocrine system, it makes you develop a hormonal imbalance (abnormalities). They depend on which endocrine gland (system) properly to their work, which hormone is affected. 

ABNORMALITIES OF PITUITARY FUNCTION 

HYPERPITUITARISM 

Having a too much hormone secreted in your pituitary gland is called hyperpituitarism. This causes certain kinds of hormone related growth, reproduction and metabolism. 

 

Growth Hormone (GH) Anterior pituitary Dwarfism Gigantism Acromegaly

GIGANTISM:

  • It occurs from the hyperactivity (overactive) of the gland during childhood 
  • Unusual height of bones (increase in the bone length) 
  • The growth of legs and hands are relatively greater than the trunk 
  • Mentally abnormal of person 

ACROMEGALY:

  • The growth of the body has ceased in adults 
  • The person has exhibits enlarged nose, growth and development of the hands, feet and thick skin.
  • Sexual function is increased, raised BMR, occurs hyperglycemia and glycosuria in result. 
  • Excess amount of ACTH produces Cushing disease. 

HYPOPITUITARISM 

Pituitary gland does not make enough hormone secretion or fails to produce one or more hormones in your body, so this certain condition called as hypopituitarism. 

This hormone deficiency can affect body routine function, such as growth, blood pressure and reproduction. 

DWARFISM:

  • It occurs as a result of hypoactivity of the gland in childhood 
  • Cessation (stop) of growth and sexual retardation (slow) 

FROHLICH’S SYNDROME:

  • This occurs in pituitary destruction in childhood 
  • The children become stunted growth and quite stupid  
  •  Deposits of fats in your body 
  • Occurs obesity and diabetes 
  • Children spend most of their time asleep 
  • Obesity makes increased appetite and reduced energy output 

SIMMOND’S DISEASES (PANHYPOPITUITARISM): 

  • It is a rare condition; pituitary gland stop making most or all hormone secretion in your body.
  • It occurs due to function of hypophysis deficiency in adult 
  • BMR is reduced, abnormal body temperature and low heart rate 
  • Carbohydrate metabolism is totally disturbed 
  • Lack of thyrotropin is due to myxedema 

ABNORMALITIES OF ADRENORCORTICAL FUNCTION: 

  • In humans, degeneration of adrenal cortex led to tuberculous or in diabetes and hypothyroidism causes Addison’s disease (adrenal insufficiency). 

SYMPTOMS 

  • Decreased 17-hydroxycorticoid and aldosterone excretion 
  • Excess loss of sodium chloride in the urine  
  • Serum potassium is elevated  
  • Low blood pressure and body temperature  
  • Muscular weakness, gastrointestinal disturbances, hypoglycemia. 
  • Hyperfunction of adrenocortical is caused by malignant tumors of the cortex and Cushing’s diseases. 

SYMPTOMS

  • Hyperglycemia and glycosuria 
  • Retention of sodium and water (edema) 
  • Increased blood volume and hypertension
  • Negative nitrogen balance  
  • Decreased serum potassium levels  

ABNORMALITIES OF THYROID FUNCTION 

HYPOTHYROIDISM

  • In plasma TSH concentration is high and both T3 and T4 concentration is low in hypothyroidism. 
  • Women are more susceptible for hypothyroidism, these symptoms are reduced slow heart rate, weight gain, sluggish behavior, constipation, sensitivity to cold, dry skin and hair hemorrhage. 
  • Hypothyroidism causes cretinism in children and myxoedema in adults. 

HYPERTHYROIDISM

  • In plasma TSH concentration is decreased and both T3 and T4 concentration is elevated in hyperthyroidism.  
  • Symptoms of hyperthyroidism may include: weight loss, rapid heartbeat and irregular heartbeat, palpitation in your heart, nervousness and irritability, thin skin, menstrual changes, sleep issues, hair loss. 
  • It causes Graves’s disease; this disorder creates excess thyroid hormone in gland. It is hereditary disease, caused by your immune system attacks your thyroid gland.   

CRETINISM

  • The children growth is mentally retarded and defective 
  • It has coarse scanty hair and thick yellowish scaly skin 

MYXOEDEMA

  • Puffiness of face and hands in adults 
  • Retention of water and NACL (sodium chloride) in the body 
  • Low BMR 
  • Abnormal body temperature and pulse rate 
  • Increased body weight due to deposition of fat and water retention, blood cholesterol and lipids levels also elevated. 

HASHIMOTO’S DISEASE

  • Complete loss of thyroid function due to develop the fibrosis of the thyroid tissue. 
  • Severe hyperthyroidism leads to toxic goiter, this occurs mostly in women. 

TOXIC GOITER (enlarged thyroid gland)

  • Complains of nervousness and restlessness, tiredness, excess sweating, breathless, tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), palpitations. 
  • Cannot tolerate the warm climate but can tolerate severe cold climate 

ABNORMALITIES OF PARATHYROID GLAND 

HYPOPARATHYROIDISM

  • These symptoms are muscular weakness, tetany, and irritability 
  • In that case, begins early in childhood, stunting of growth, defective tooth development, and mental retardation. 
  • Serum and urinary calcium are decreased (low), serum phosphate is increased. 
  • Serum magnesium and hydroxyproline levels are decreased. 
  • Treatment of hypoparathyroidism is used by the precursors are calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D. 

HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

  • It occurs due to the tumor of the gland, the symptoms of hyperparathyroidism are hypercalcemia, decalcification of bones, renal stones. 
  • Serum phosphorus is low, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is increased, highly increased excretion of calcium in urine. 
  • Injection of calcitonin helps to reduce serum calcium levels. 

ABNORMALITIES OF PANCREATIC GLAND  

These symptoms are insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, glycosuria, electrolyte depletion and diabetes. 

DIABETES

  • When your blood glucose or sugar level is high or low is called as diabetes. High blood glucose and lacks of enough insulin causes hyperglycemia. These symptoms are dry mouth, weakness, confusion, stress, eating too much. 
  • The low blood glucose is called as hypoglycemia. 
  • Glycosuria causes, increased plasma amino acids, nitrogen loss in urine and excretion of more glucose or sugar in urine. These symptoms are extreme hunger, more frequent urination, nighttime urination.

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